cocktail families

Cocktail Families/Categories

Drinks in cocktail families are made the same way and according to their respective categories. For instance, if one is to make Brandy or Whiskey Crusta, the only change that has to be made is to substitute the primary liquor. Once you know the family formula, you’ll be able to make any drink of that particular category.

That doesn’t mean variation and changes are impossible, but they have to be within the style of the particular drink family. If you take away the bitters and lemon peel from Crusta, it will become Sour, keep the bitters, and we have a Cocktail. Fix without the fruit, except for a lemon peel, will become Sour.
The original Gin Sling served with a pinch of nutmeg on top is Gin Toddy; serve Julep in a smaller glass, and you will have Smash. Remove the cordial from Daisy, and you will be doing a drink similar to Sours.

The common basis for most of these drinks can be traced back to Punch in the mid-1600s. A mix of spirit, citrus, sweetening agent, water (or tea), and spices.

There are numerous attempts and ideas on organizing, simplifying, and finding common ground among mixed drink families to reduce the number of their categories and create a straightforward methodology for making them.

Some of these simplified methodologies are as follows.

The Joy of Mixology – Garry Regan

It introduced some new categories based on historical texts and his own experience.

  • Duos and Trios – Duos call for two ingredients, and Trios for adding cream or crema liqueur to the Duo. Stinger and White Russian.
  • French-Italian drinks – All drinks that contain vermouth, distilled spirit, and sometimes bitters. Martini, Manhattan.
  • Florida Highballs – mixed drinks with orange or grapefruit juice. Alabama Slammer.
  • New England Highballs – mixed drinks with cranberry juice. Bay Breeze.
  • Milanese Drinks – All of them have Campari as part of the recipe. Negroni, Americano.
  • Muddled drinks – Caipirinha, Old-Fashioned.
  • Snappers – mixed drinks with savory ingredients (tomato juice, clamato juice, and condiments. Bloody Mary, Bloody Caesar.
  • International Sours – A base liquor, citrus juice, sweetened by liqueur, and/or juice. Aviation cocktail.
  • New Orleans Sours – a base spirit, citrus juice, and an orange-flavored liqueur. Sidecar, Pegu Club.
  • Sparkling Sours – a base spirit, citrus juice, a sweetening agent, and a carbonated beverage. Tom Collins.
  • Squirrel Sours – a base spirit, citrus juice, and nut-flavored liqueur. French Squirrel.
  • Tropical Drinks – Bahama Mama, Pina Colada.

Magnificent 7 – Wayne Collins

He introduced the idea that every drink is derived from;

  • Punch – spirit, citrus, sweetening agent, water (or tea), and spices
  • Milk Punch – spirit, sweetening agent, spice, and dairy
  • Sling – spirit, sweetening agent, water
  • Cocktail- spirit, sweetening agent, water, and bitters
  • Sour – spirit, sweetening agent, and citrus
  • Cobbler – spirit or wine and sweetening agent. Served on ice and garnished with fruit.
  • Highball – spirit and a mixer

Cocktail Codex – David Kaplan, Alex Day, and Nick Fauchald

Drink families are based on a handful of well-known templates.

  • Old-fashioned – is spirit driven, balanced by a small amount of sweetness, seasoned with bitters and garnish.
  • Martini – alcohol and aromatized wine. Nothing else but garnish. Very flexible in the choice of base ingredients and their respective ratios.
  • Daiquiri – is composed of a spirit, citrus, and a sweetener, typically rum, lime juice, and simple syrup.
  • Sidecar – composed of a spirit, liqueur, citrus juice
  • Whisky Highball – composed of a core spirit and balanced by a nonalcoholic mixer.
  • Flip – a combination of a core spirit or fortified wine and a rich ingredient (eggs, dairy, coconut milk, or dense liqueurs and syrups). A flip is seasoned with spices on top.

These methodologies explain the interconnections between mixed drink families and narrow their similarities into a few more general categories, making it easier for the novice and professional bartender to see the larger picture of the drink creation throughout history.

However, there is one minor issue in narrowing down the drink/cocktail families to just a few method-based categories.

If one gets an order for Fix, Fizz, Crusta, or Scaffa, they still have to know how to make them; without knowing that they will not know to which of the above-mentioned general categories they belong, and therefore not been and been able to make the requested drinks. As much as I like the idea of simplified mixing methodologies to see the larger picture and for menu structuring, knowing the details of each mixed drink family is an essential step in a bartender’s education and a knowledge not to be forgotten.

Cocktail Families


Moscow Mule
By Will Shenton – CC BY-SA 3.0,

Buck is a cocktail made with spirit, ginger ale or ginger beer, and citrus juice.

It is believed to have been created around 1910 by adding liquor to the non-alcoholic version of “Horse’s Neck with a Kick” (ginger ale, a long spiral of lemon peel draped over the edge of an “old-fashioned” or highball glass).1

The Horse’s Neck, also known as Ginger ale Cooler, was listed under the Coolers section of the 1904 Applegreen book Barkeeper’s Guide.

Ginger Ale Cooler – 1904

Pare a lemon the same as a Scotch cooler. Pare the lemon to leave the rind in a spiral-shaped piece.
Add one bottle of imported ginger ale.
Place around a piece of ice inside of the rind.
Add one jigger of good Scotch whisky.
One bottle of Delatour soda.
Use large thin glass. Stir well with a large bar spoon and serve.
Applegreen book Barkeeper’s Guide, 1904

Bacardi Buck – 1935

Two lumps of ice in a high-ball glass
Juice of half Lime
One jigger Bacardi
“Split” of Ginger Ale
The Old Astoria Bar Book by Albert Stevens Crockett, 1935

The most well-known Buck drink is the Moskow Mule, an official IBA cocktail. There are twenty-two variations of the Moskow Mule/Buck recipe.


Brandy Shamperelle1

They are layered drinks similar to Pousse Cafe and can also be stirred gently in the glass. They are usually stirred with ice and strained into a small cocktail glass.

Brandy Champerelle is a cocktail digestive of French origin. It also appeared in 1862 “How to mix drinks” by Jerry Thomas.

Brandy Champarelle – 1862

⅓ brandy
⅓ Bogart’s bitters
⅓ Curacoa
“This is a great French cafe drink.” It is not specified whether to stir or layer.
J.Thomas, recipe 166, 1862

Brandy Champerelle, No. 1

1/4 wineglass (½ oz) Curacoa (red.)
¼ wine glass Chartreuse (yellow.)
¼ wine glass anisette or Maraschino
½ wine glass (1 oz) brandy
2 or 3 dashes of Angostura bitters

To be prepared with the same care as concocting Pousse Cafe, not allowing the different liquors to run into one another.
The Modern bartender’s guide, 1884

Brandy Champerelle – 1908

Place equal quantities of Curacoa, anisette, Chartreuse (yellow or green), and cognac in a sherry glass in the order named and dash with a few drops of Angostura bitters. Pour the ingredients carefully, so they will not mix, and lay one on top of the other like a Pousse Cafe. Serve with ice water on the side.
World’s Drinks, 1908

Cognac Champerelle – Present

1 oz cognac
1 oz orange curacao
½ oz Green Chartreuse
½ oz anisette
Stir in a mixing glass with ice strain and serve in a cocktail glass.


CobblerFrappe 2 e1647458072166

Cobbler is a summer drink. It originated in the United States and is relatively simpler in construction than the Julep. Regardless of the base liquor used, the drink is always made the same way.

Sherry Cobbler – 1862

Proceed this way: (Use a large tumbler glass)
Two wine glasses of Sherry, one tablespoonful of sugar, and 2 or 3 slices of orange.
Fill a large bar glass with broken ice, put the sugar on top of this, pour in the wine, insert the slices of orange in the ice, lay them on top, throw in some berries if in season, and shake altogether. Place a straw in the glass.
J. Thomas – Hot to Mix Drinks, 1862

Sherry Cobbler -1930

add some ice to a tumbler
1/2 glass (1oz) of Brandy
1/2 glass of Curacao
1/2 glass of Drioli Maraschino
1 glass (2oz) of Sherry
Add soda water. Stir well and decorate with fruits in season. Float a little Port Wine on top.
Harry’s ABC of Mixing Cocktails, 1930 edition.

Aperol Cobbler

2 ounces Aperol
1 oz lemon juice
1 oz orange juice
1 tablespoon sugar
2 or 3 orange slices
Garnish with seasonal berries and an orange slice.

Add oranges and sugar to a cocktail shaker and muddle them. Add Aperol, lemon, orange juice, and ice, then shake to chill. Double strain into a Collins glass filled with crushed ice. Garnish with seasonal berries and an orange slice.

Cocktail – Bittered Sling

Today’s definition of a cocktail is often associated with a myriad of mixed drinks, and there are no clearly defined rules of what constitutes a cocktail. According to the original definition of 1806, it is a mixture of spirits, sugar, water, and bitters, a stimulating drink, aperitif, with the primary goal of stimulating the appetite.

As more and more flavor modifiers were being introduced, the new cocktail recipes often had little to do with the original definition of a cocktail.
That was probably one of the reasons for making cocktails in the old-fashioned way, which subsequently led to the popularity of the Old-Fashioned cocktail.

In 1898, in the Cocktails…How to make them…, for some of the cocktail recipes, there were instructions on how they can be made in an old-fashioned way.
Here are some descriptions from the 1800s of what a cocktail is and when to serve it.

Cocktails are compounds very much used by “ early birds ” to fortify the inner man, and by those who like their consolations hot and strong.
“ Cocktail” is not so ancient an institution as Juleps, &c., but, with next of kin “Crusta,” promises to maintain its ground.

Cooling Cups and Dainty Drinks – William Terrington, 1869

A Cocktail is an appetizer or stomach stimulant and differs from other drinks in that it is supposed to contain Bitters.

Cocktails…How to make them… -1898

The cocktail is of recent origin but has rapidly most frequently been called for in the morning and about half an hour before dinner.
It is sometimes a welcome companion taken as an appetizer, fishing excursions, and travelers often go provided with it on railroad journeys.
The original cocktails were all made from Gin, Whiskey, or Brandy, and these are the spirits used in almost every well-known cocktail made today. The addition of Vermouth “was the first move toward blending cocktails and was the initial feature that led to their popularity.

Cocktails…How to make them… -1898

Interestingly, in Cocktails and How to Make Them, there is no mention of the Old-Fashioned cocktail, but rather it focuses on the cocktails made the old-fashioned way.

The first mention of the Old Fashioned I came across in a published book was Theodore Proulx’s Bartender’s Manual, 1888.

Old-Fashioned – 1895

Crush in a small bar glass one lump loaf of sugar
add in two dashes Caroni or Angostura bitters
1 piece twisted lemon peel
2 or 3 small lumps of ice
1 jigger whisky
Serve with a small bar spoon in a glass.

H.Green, p.62, 1895

Martini Cocktail – 1888

Fill the glass with ice – use a large bar glass.
2 or 3 dashes of Gum Syrup
2 or 3 dashes of Bitters; (Boker’s genuine only.)
1 dash of Curacoa
½ wineglassful (1 oz) of Old Tom Gin
½ wineglassful (1oz) of Vermouth
Stir well with a spoon and strain it into a fancy cocktail glass.
Squeeze a piece of lemon peel on top and serve.
H. Johnson’s New and Improved bartender’s manual, 1888

The modern version of the martini uses much less vermouth, and some prefer no vermouth.

Manhattan Cocktail – 1888

Fill up the glass with ice – use a large bar glass.
2 or 3 dashes of Gum Syrup
1 or 2 dashes of Bitters; (Boker’s genuine only)
1 dash of Curacoa (or absinthe if required)
1/2 wine glass (1oz) of Whiskey
1/2 wine glass (1oz) of Vermouth
Stir up well, strain into a fancy cocktail glass, squeeze a piece of lemon peel on top, and serve;
Leave it to the customer to decide whether to use Absinthe or not. “This drink is very popular in the present day”.
H. Johnson’s New and Improved bartender’s manual, 1888

The modern version of Manhattan uses more whiskey than vermouth and no Curacao and syrup.



Classic cocktails featuring gin, lemon juice, simple syrup, and club soda. Stirred and served on ice. Instead of gin, any other liquor can be used.

Tom Collins – 1888

(Use an extra-large bar glass.)
3/4 tablespoonful of sugar
3 or 4 dashes of lime or lemon juice
3 to 4 pieces of broken ice
1 wine glass of Old Tom Gin; (genuine only)
1 bottle of plain Soda Water
Mix well with a spoon, remove the ice, and serve.
Attention must be paid not to let the foam of the soda water spread over the glass; this drink must be drunk as soon as mixed in order not to let it get stale.
Harry Johnson’s New and Improved Bartender’s Manual (1888)

Tom Collins – 1930

In a large tumbler, put 2 or 3 lumps of ice
1 teaspoon of sugar
Juice of 1 lemon
1 glass of Old Tom Gin.
Fill with soda, stir well, and serve.
Harry’s ABC of Mixing Cocktails, 1930

John Collins – 1930

Put 3 or 4 lumps of ice in a large tumbler
Juice of lemon
2 teaspoonfuls of sugar,
1 wine glass (2 oz) of Hollands Gin. Fill the balance with Soda water.
Stir well.
(It has been the practice of using London Gin in this drink for some time.)
Harry’s ABC of Mixing Cocktails, 1930

The current version of Tom Collins uses London dry gin predominantly, and John Collins is usually made with whiskey.

The High King Highball

3 large raspberries
1/2 ounce simple syrup
2 ounces Clontarf Irish whiskey
1/2 ounce Aperol
3/4 ounce lemon juice, freshly squeezed
3/4 ounce grapefruit juice, freshly squeezed
1 dash Peychaud’s bitters
Club soda, to top
Garnish: lemon wheel, raspberry

In a cocktail shaker, muddle the raspberries with simple syrup.
Add the Irish whiskey, Aperol, lemon juice, grapefruit juice, and bitters into the shaker with ice, and shake until well-chilled. Fine-strain into a Collins glass over fresh ice and top with the club soda.
Garnish with a skewered lemon wheel and raspberries.


wine cooler

Definition: Long drink. It is made with a wine/liquor base and top with soda or any other carbonated beverage. Stirred and served over ice in a Collins glass.

Saratoga Cooler

Take 1 teaspoonful of powdered white sugar
Juice of half a lemon
1 bottle of ginger ale
2 small lumps of ice
Stir well and remove the ice before serving.
How to Mix Drinks, Published by J. K. Mitchell (1889)

Country Club Cooler

1 glass (2 oz) French Vermouth,
1 teaspoonful Grenadine
2 lumps of ice
Fill with Soda Water. Serve in a tumbler.
Harry’s ABC of Mixing Cocktails, 1930

Calypso Cooler

1 ½ oz Rum
½ oz Peach Schnapps
2 oz orange juice
½ oz lime juice
splash of oz grenadine
top with soda water
Shake everything with ice – except soda—strain into a large Collins glass.
Garnish with berries and dehydrated orange slices.


brandy crusta
CC BY-SA 3.0

Crusta combines a spirit (gin, rum, or whisky) with lemon juice and Angostura bitters. It is traditionally served with a lemon rind spiral.

Crusta Based Recipe

1 ½ ounces liquor
1⁄2 ounce Cointreau
1⁄2 ounce lemon juice
1 tablespoon superfine sugar
2 teaspoons maraschino
1 lemon wedge
Peel of 1 orange, and cut into a spiral.
Crushed ice

Place the sugar in a saucer. Rub the rim of a wine goblet with the lemon wedge and dip the glass into the sugar to coat the rim thoroughly; discard the lemon. Place the orange peel spiral into the goblet and drape one end over the rim of the glass. Fill the glass with crushed ice and shake well with ice, liquor, Cointreau, maraschino liqueur, and lemon juice. Strain into the goblet glass.

Whiskey Crusta – 1888

1/2 pony glass of orchard syrup
1 or 2 dashes of Boker Bitters
1 dash of Lemon juice
2 dashes of Maraschino
½ glass of finely shaved ice
3/4 wine glass (1 ¾ oz) of Whiskey
Mix well with a spoon and strain it into the lemon peel’s wine glass. Ornament it with a little fruit, and serve.
Harry Johnson’s New and Improved Bartender’s Manual (1888)

Brandy Crusta -1930

Take a small wine glass. Moisten the rim with lemon and dip the glass rim into caster sugar, which gives the glass a frosted appearance.
Cut the rind of half a lemon the same as you would peel an apple. Then fit it into your prepared glass. Then pour it into your shaker.

1 teaspoon Sugar or Gomme Syrup
3 dashes of Drioli Maraschino
3 dashes of Angostura bitters
juice of ¼ lemon
1 glass of brandy ( 2 oz)
Shake well with ice and pour into your glass. Add the lemon rind.
ABC of Mixing, 1930

Brandy Crusta

2 oz brandy
1⁄2 oz orange Curaçao
1⁄2 oz Maraschino liqueur
1 oz fresh lemon juice
3 dashes Angostura bitters
1 lemon wedge
caster sugar
ice cubes
One lemon rind spiral to decorate.
Moisten the rim of a chilled Martini glass with the lemon wedge and frost with the sugar. Shake with ice all the remaining ingredients until a frost forms outside the shaker. Strain into the glass. Decorate with a lemon rind spiral and serve.


Pimms No 1 Cup

Cups are alcohol-based drinks and one of the oldest drink families, dating hundreds of years ago. Cups are mostly made with wine or ale and a combination of juices, fruits, sweeteners, and spices. They are often associated with ancient rituals and served by pitchers or other large vessels.

The Oxford Grace Cup

The ancient Grace Cup was a vessel proportioned to the number of the company assembled, which went around the table, the guests drinking out of the same cup one after another.

It has been the custom from time immemorial, at the civic feasts in Oxford, for the Grace Cup to be introduced before the removal of the cloth when the Mayor receives the Cup standing; his right and left-hand guests also rise from their seat while he gives the toast, which, since the Reformation, has been, ” Church and King.”

The Cup is then handed round the table, no one presuming to apply his lips to it until two persons have risen from their seat. The origin of this custom is ascribed by our antiquaries to the practice of the Danes heretofore in England, who frequently used to stab or cut the throats of the natives while they were drinking, the persons standing being sureties that the one holding the cup should come to no harm while partaking of it.2

Recipe – 1827

Extract the juice from the peeling of a lemon, and cut the remainder into thin slices.
Put it into a jug or bowl, and pour three half-pints of strong home-brewed beer and a bottle of mountain wine.
Grate nutmeg into it; sweeten it to your taste;
Stir until the sugar is dissolved, then add three or four slices of bread toasted brown.
Let it stand for two hours, then strain it into the Grace Cup.
Oxford Night Cup (Collection of Recipes), 1827.

In his book from 1869, Cooling Cups and Dainty Drinks – William Terrington dedicated more than 20 pages to Cups; drinks such as Claret Cup and Pimm’s Cup originated around that time.


8 to 12 pieces of lump sugar
1 bottle of Apollinaris water
2 Lemons, cut into slices
2 Oranges, cut into slices
1/2 Pineapple, cut into slices
2 wine glasses of Maraschino
Use a bowl for mixing. Mix well with a ladle. Place this into your vessel or a tin dish filled with ice.
Then when the party is ready to call for it, add:

4 bottles of very fine Claret
1 bottle of Champagne or any other sparkling wine.

Mix thoroughly, place sufficient berries on top, and serve it into a fancy wine glass, and you will have an elegant Claret Cup.
Harry Johnson, New and Improved Bartender’s Manual, 1888

CHABLIS or POUILLY CUP – (Six drinks)

Place a large piece of ice,
one glass of Benedictine,
three thin slices of ripe pineapple,
one bottle of Chablis, Pouilly, or other white Burgundy.
In a half-gallon pitcher, stir gently and serve. Ripe peaches may be used to replace the pineapple.
Frank Meier of the Ritz Bar Paris, The Artistry of Mixing Drinks, 1936

Today Pimm’s No.1 is probably the most well-known Cup. It’s a gin-based liqueur. James Pimm, a farmer’s son who owned an oyster bar in 19th-century London, created and offered his guests this secret mix of gin, quinine, and a spice blend as a tonic to aid digestion. Today it’s 25 percent alcohol by volume or 50 proof.

Pimm’s Cup

2 ounces Pimm’s No. 1
1/2 ounce lemon juice, freshly squeezed
1/2 oz simple syrup – if using soda water
Add ice, fill with soda water, sprite, or ginger ale in a tall glass, and stir gently.
Garnish with a cucumber slice, mint sprig, strawberry, lemon, or/and orange slice.


Daisy 1 3

Daisy is made with spirit, liqueur, and citrus juice (lemon or lime). It is served straight up, on the rocks, or blended with ice.

Daisy Based recipe

2 oz liquor
1⁄2 teaspoon grenadine
1 oz lemon juice
1⁄2 teaspoon superfine sugar
1 orange slice
1 maraschino cherry
Shake liquor, lemon juice, sugar, and grenadine in a shaker with ice. Pour into an old-fashioned glass over ice or straight up. Garnish with the cherry and the orange slice.

Whiskey Daisy – 1888

1/2 tablespoonful of sugar
2 or 3 dashes of Lemon juice
1 dash of Lime juice
1 squirt of Syphon Selters, dissolve the juice and sugar
1 glass filled with finely shaved ice
1 wine glass (2 oz) of good whiskey
Fill the glass with shaved ice
1/2 pony glass Chartreuse (yellow)
Stir up well with a spoon, then take a fancy glass, have it dressed with fruit, strain the mixture, and serve.

“This drink is very palatable and will taste good to almost anybody.”
Harry Johnson’s New and improved bartender’s manual, 1888

Whiskey Daisy

½ oz juice of a lime
¼ oz juice of a lemon
⅔ teaspoon of grenadine
⅔ teaspoon of seltzer
1 ½ oz of rye whiskey
Put in a pewter mug with ice and stir until frosted. Serve with fresh fruit, mint leaves, and straw.
300 ways to mix a drink, 1945

Rum Daisy

2 oz white rum
1 oz of fresh lemon juice
½ oz simple syrup
½ oz raspberry syrup or syrup of choice
Shake with ice and strain over a glass filled with crushed ice. Garnish with raspberries.



Eggnog or egg milk punch is a drink made with eggs, milk, and sweetener; with so many homemade recipes, the rest of the ingredients are up to a person’s choice; it can be served hot or cold.

George Washington – attributed recipe

“One-quart cream, one-quart milk, one dozen tablespoons sugar, one-pint brandy, ½ pint rye whiskey, ½ pint Jamaica rum, ¼ pint sherry – mix liquor first, then separate yolks and whites of 12 eggs, add sugar to beaten yolks, mix well.
Add milk and cream, slowly beating. Beat whites of eggs until stiff and fold slowly into a mixture. Let’s sit in a cool place for several days. Taste frequently.”

The recipe sounds great, and I’m sure it tastes delicious, but according to the Farmer’s Almanac, the recipe’s timing doesn’t add up. The eggnog recipe is a vintage recipe; it originated in the 19th century, and George Washington (1732–99) lived in the 18th century.

According to the librarians at Mount Vernon, “…no eggnog recipe has been definitively linked to Washington.”

Mount Vernon Eggnog Recipe

1 egg, room temperature
1 leveled tablespoon sugar
1/4 cup bourbon whiskey
1/4 cup whipping cream
Break the eggs and separate the yolks from the whites. Beat whites of eggs until stiff. Beat whipping cream until stiff. Beat the yolks of the eggs to an even consistency, slowly adding sugar. Add whiskey slowly. Fold in beaten egg whites. Fold in whipped cream. Sprinkle with nutmeg.

Egg Nog – 1888

1 fresh egg
¾ tablespoonful of sugar
⅓ glass full of ice.
1 pony glass (1 oz) St. Croix or Jamaica rum
1 wine glass (2 oz) full of Brandy
Use a large bar glass. Fill the glass with rich milk, shake the ingredients well together and strain into a large bar glass; grate a little nutmeg on top and serve. It is proper for the bartender to ask the customer what flavor he prefers, whether St. Croix or Jamaica rum.
Harry Johnson’s New and improved bartender’s manual, 1888

Raspberry Eggnog – Non-alcoholic

2 egg yolks
5 oz milk
100 g raspberry jam or 2 oz of raspberry syrup
whipped cream – optional
Mix and beat with a mixer. Top with whipped cream. Serve in highball cups with ice and a straw.


Fix cocktails

Spirit, lemon juice, sugar syrup (any flavored syrup). Shaken and strained over crushed ice in an old-fashioned type of glass.

Gin Fix – 1869

one wine glass (2 oz) of gin
juice of half a lemon
Stir with a spoon and add a slice or two of orange, pineapple or
berries if in season.
Haney’s Steward and Barkeeper’s Manual, 1869

Gin Fix – 1937

1 tablespoonful of sugar.
¼ juice of a lemon
½ (1 oz) wineglass water.
1 wineglass (2 oz) Gin
Fill two-thirds full of ice. Stir and ornament the top with fruits in season.
Approved Cocktail: UK Bartenders Guild, 1937

Brandy Fix

crushed ice
2 teaspoons sugar syrup
1⁄4 measure fresh lemon juice
1⁄2 measure cherry brandy
1 measure brandy
One lemon rind spiral to decorate
Fill a rock glass with crushed ice. Build all the ingredients over the ice one by one in order. Decorate the cocktail with a lemon rind spiral and serve.
The Classic Cocktail Bible


Gin Fizz
Ralf Roletschek – CC BY-SA 3.0

Fizzes are Collins-style drinks served without ice. Created in the mid-19th century, fizzes are long sparkling drinks, traditionally made with a spirit, lemon juice, and sugar and topped up with a fizzy beverage.

Fizz Based recipe

2 oz liquor
4 ounces of club soda
1 oz lemon juice
1 teaspoon superfine
Combine the liquor, lemon juice, and sugar. Shake well. Strain into a fizz glass (smaller collins glass 6-8 oz), no ice. Add the club soda. Stir well.

Gin Fizz – 1884

Juice of one Half Lemon
One tablespoon of sugar
One wine glass (2oz) of gin

Fill a large bar glass half full of cracked ice, add gin, lemon juice, sugar, and the balance with Seltzer or Vichy water. Mix and strain into a large bar glass. Serve while foaming.
Albert Barnes, Art of Mixing Plain and Fancy Drinks, 1884

Gin Fizz – 1935

Juice one-half Lemon
One-half spoon Sugar
One jigger Tom Gin
Shake and strain; fill from a chilled siphon.
Albert Crockett, The Old Waldorf-Astoria Bar Book, 1935

Gin Fizz

2 oz Plymouth or London dry gin
3⁄4 oz simple syrup
3⁄4 oz fresh lemon juice
1 egg white ( optional, it will become Silver Fizz)
2 oz cold seltzer
Add the gin, lemon juice, sugar syrup, and egg white and shake briefly with no ice (dry shake). Add ice and shake again. Strain into a chilled highball glass and top with soda water. Garnish with lemon and mint sprigs.


BrandyFlip 1 edited
Ilikefood, CC BY-SA 4.0

A flip is a spirit or wine shaken with egg and sugar until frothy, then dusted with nutmeg. Early flips were warmed by plunging red-hot poker into the drink. Served more often cold than hot in a coupe or wine glass.

It is similar to Eggnog with one small difference; milk and dairy products are not part of the recipes in Flip.

Brandy Flip – Base recipe

1 egg beaten very thin
1 teaspoonful of sugar
1 glass of brandy
Mix with fine ice; strain in a small coupe or wine glass. glass—nutmeg on top.

It is similar to Eggnog with one small difference; milk and dairy products are not part of the recipes in Flip.

Brandy Flip – 1874

1 egg beaten very thin
1 teaspoonful of sugar
1 glass of brandy
Mix with fine ice; strain in a small glass—nutmeg on top.
The American Bar-tender, by E.A. Simmons, 1874

Brandy Flip – 1930

1 yolk of fresh egg
1 teaspoon of syrup gomme*
2 oz Brandy
Shake well and strain into a small wine glass—grate a little nutmeg on top.
Harry’s ABC of Mixing Cocktails, 1930

*Gomme syrup – Gum syrup is a rich simple syrup (2:1 sugar: water) combined with gum Arabic, an all-natural resin harvested from the Acacia tree and found primarily in Northeast Africa.

Brandy Flip

ice cubes
1 egg
2 measures brandy
1 1⁄2 teaspoons caster sugar
freshly grated nutmeg to decorate
Half-fill a cocktail shaker with ice cubes. Dry shake (no ice) the ingredients first. Add all the remaining ingredients and shake until a frost forms outside the shaker—strain into a coupe or balloon glass. Decorate with a bit of grated nutmeg and serve.
The Classic Cocktail Bible


Frappé in French means “iced” and originated in the mid-19th century. A drink that has been chilled or partially frozen.

“If frozen champagne, which is often called for, is desired, place the bottle in the ice cooler, and then fill up the cooler with broken ice and rock salt to the top, then revolve the bottle backward and forward with both bands as rapidly as possible.
Then cut the string, draw the cork, and place a clean napkin over the mouth of the bottle. You will find that the wine will freeze much quicker in this way than if leaving the cork in the bottle.
This is what is called frozen wine or champagne frappe.”
H.Johnson’s New and Improved bartender’s manual, 1888

Any spirits, cordials, or liquid poured over crushed ice is considered Frappé. If they are blended with ice, they will become part of the Frozen drink family.

Fruit Frappe – 1892

1 shot of Santa Cruz rum
1 pony of rich cream
2 bar-spoons of pineapple syrup
1 bar spoonful of sugar
a little orange juice
Pack your goblet with fine ice and shake it to the freezing point. Strain and serve into a fancy glass.
The Flowing Bowl –What and When to Drink, 1892

Creme de menthe Frappé

Fill a cocktail glass with fine ice. Fill the glass with green creme de menthe. Serve with a short straw.

Cafe Royal Frappe

1 ¼ oz Brandy – the original recipe calls for 1/4 of Brandy.
3/4 oz black coffee
Frapped (chilled really well) in a shaker. Strain in a semi-frozen state into a chilled glass.
300 Ways to Mix Drinks, page 30, 1945

Amaretto Sour Frappé

1 1/2 oz amaretto, preferably Lazzaroni
3/4 oz lemon juice
1/2 oz pineapple juice
1 teaspoon granulated sugar
10 oz pebble ice
Combine all the ingredients, except the amaretto, in a blender.
Blend on a slow setting, then pour the amaretto into the blender.
Blend for 30 more seconds.
Pour into a V-shaped Martini glass or a coupe and garnish with pineapple fronds.
Nick Detrich, Manolito | New Orleans



Liquor is mixed with water and often served hot with lemon juice and sugar.

The name “grog” probably came from the nickname of Admiral Vernon, who was known as “Old Grog” because he wore a grogram cloak.
The word originally referred to rum diluted with water (and later on long sea voyages, also added the juice of limes or lemons), which British Vice-Admiral Edward Vernon introduced into the naval squadron he commanded in the West Indies on 21 August 1740.

Grog – Original Recipe

1 oz Dark Navy Rum
4 oz Water
1 oz Fresh Lime Juice
1 teaspoon Brown Sugar – or 1/2 oz of Demerara Syrup
Half a spent Lime Shell

Add brown sugar, lime juice, and 1oz of water into a cocktail shaker and stir until the sugar’s dissolved.
Pour in the rum and the rest of your water, adding enough ice to show above the surface of the liquid.
Shake vigorously for around 15 seconds and strain into a rock glass filled with crushed ice – or even better, a skull Tiki mug!
Throw in your spent lime shell to ensure you get rid of the scurvy. Raise your glass, pull a lip-curling face, and make it like a pirate.


Rum coke

Highballs are built in a highball glass and usually served over ice. It consists of a spirit and a mixer (sparkling beverage or plain water).

A ball would be placed high on a tall railway station pole when a train was running behind schedule in the nineteenth century to signal the driver and engineer to travel at full speed. Hence, the term highball was first connected to speed and was later given to a drink that can be made quickly.

Gin and Tonik
Rye and Ginger, etc.


Mint Julep
By Cocktailmarler – Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0

Julep is made with spirit, sweetener, and mint and served over crushed ice. The first mention of Julep dates back to 1634 in a poem by John Milton.

“A Mask Presented at Ludlow Castle, 1634
The Persons
…When the fresh blood grows lively, and returns [ 670 ]
Brisk as the April buds in Primrose-season.
And first, behold this cordial Julep here
That flames, and dances in his crystal bounds
With spirits of balm and fragrant Syrops mixt.
Not that Nepenthes which the wife of Thone, [ 675 ]
In Egypt gave to Jove-born Helena3

“cordial julep, heart-reviving drink. Cordial, lit. Hearty (Lat. cordi, stem of cor, the heart): julep, Persian gulāb, rose-water”.4

Julap – early 1700s

“Julap or Julep is a refreshing and wholesome drink, used much by country housewives.” John Quincy, the author of a dictionary of Physic, (died in 1722), describes it as an extemporaneous form of medicine, made of simple and compound water sweetened, and serves as a vehicle for other forms not so convenient to take alone.
The usual mode of making it in the vicinage of Oxford is by sweetening the infusion of mint with honey and mixing a glass of wine or spirits.
The following is the Mint Julep of the Wenham Lake Company. Mingle ice and sugar as described in the Recipe for Sherry Cobbler.

Mint Julep – the Wenham Lake Company

Add a wine glass (2 oz) of brandy, half a wine glass of old rum, 2 or 3 sprigs of mint. Stir the whole well together and drink it through a straw.
Oxford Night Caps book, 4th edition, 1847.

Jalap is a Persian word, signifying a sweet potion. Ice in England was not readily available then, and they often used room-temperature water for dilution.

Mint Julep – 1869

Fill a large bar glass with thinly shaven ice.
Place on top a few sprigs of fresh mint and a tablespoonful of white sugar.
Pour in a wine glass and half (3 oz) of the finest cognac, and add a few berries and a couple of slices of orange. Add a dash of port wine or Jamaica rum. Shake it well.
Sprinkle some white sugar on top, and if ornamentation is desired, add a few more berries and a fresh slice of the orange, with some additional mint in the center.
Imbibe through a straw.
Haney’s Steward and Bar-keeper manual (1869)

Mint Julep

1 teaspoonful of sugar
1/2 wine glass (1oz) of water
3 to 4 sprigs of mint

Muddle well until the flavor of the mint is well extracted; then take out the mint, and add 2 glasses of Walker’s Bourbon whiskey. Fill the tumbler with finely shaved ice and stir well until the glass gets frosted. Add some sprigs of mint and insert them in the ice with the stems downwards so the leaves will be on the surface in the shape of a bouquet. Add slices of orange, cherries, pineapple, and lemon on top.
ABC of Mixing, 1930

Brandy Julep is made the same as Mint Julep without the mint, but according to Haney’s Steward and Bar-keeper manual (1869)

It is like the play of Hamlet, with the prince left out.

Mint Julep

10 mint leaves, plus an extra sprig of mint to decorate
1 teaspoon sugar syrup
4 dashes of Angostura bitters
crushed ice
2 measures of bourbon
Put the mint leaves, sugar syrup, and bitters into a highball glass and muddle together. Fill the glass with crushed ice. Pour over the bourbon and stir well. Decorate with a mint sprig and serve.


mulled wine 1 1

Mull wine or spiced wine with herbs and spices. Generally made in quantity, and can be served cold or hot in wine goblets – in the past, they used heated red hot pokers.

Spiced wines have been known to people for millenniums (2 BC in the Roman Empire).

The composition of this excellent spiced wine is as follows. Into a copper bowl put 6 sextarii​ of honey and 2 sextarii of wine; heat on a slow fire, constantly stirring the mixture with a whip. At the boiling point add a dash of cold wine, retire from stove and skim. Repeat this twice or three times, let it rest till the next day, and skim again. Then add 4 ounces of crushed pepper,​ 3 scruples of mastich, a drachm each of nard or laurel leaves and saffron, 5 drachms of roasted date stones crushed and previously soaked in wine to soften them. When this is properly 1st done add 18 sextarii of light wine. To clarify it perfectly, add crushed charcoal​ twice or as often as necessary which will draw the residue together and carefully strain or filter through the charcoal.

APICIUS DE RE COQUINARIA, a composition of Roman cookery recipes, 1st century AD.

For the first time, it was mentioned in the English language in the 1390 Cookery book, The Form of Cury, compiled by the Master-Cooks of King RICHARD II.

In middle English, spiced wine was called Ypocras.

“There is a process at large for making ypocrasse in a MS. of my respectable friend Thomas Astle, Esq. p. 2. which we have thought proper to transcribe, as follows:”

To make Ypocrasse for lords with gynger, synamon, and graynes sugour, and turefoll: and for comyn pepull gynger canell, longe peper, and claryffyed hony. Loke ye have feyre pewter basens to kepe in your pouders and your ypocrasse to ren ynne. and to vi basens ye muste have vi renners on a perche as ye may here see. and loke your poudurs and your gynger be redy and well paryd or hit be beton in to poudr. Gynger colombyne is the best gynger, mayken and balandyne be not so good nor holsom…. now thou knowist the propertees of Ypocras. Your poudurs must be made everyche by themselfe, and leid in a bledder in store, hange sure your perche with baggs, and that no bagge twoyche other, but basen twoyche basen. The fyrst bagge of a galon, every on of the other a potell. Fyrst do in to a basen a galon or ij of redwyne, then put in your pouders, and do it in to the renners, and so in to the seconde bagge, then take a pece and assay it. And yef hit be eny thyng to stronge of gynger alay it withe synamon, and yef it be strong of synamon alay it withe sugour cute. And thus schall ye make perfyte Ypocras. And loke your bagges be of boltell clothe, and the mouthes opyn, and let it ren in v or vi bagges on a perche, and under every bagge a clene basen. The draftes of the spies is good for sewies. Put your Ypocrase in to a stanche wessell, and bynde opon the mouthe a bleddur strongly, then serve forthe waffers and Ypocrasse.’

Claret Mulled wine -1862

Peel one lemon and add it to fine white sugar. Pour over one glass of Sherry and add one bottle of claret and sugar to taste. Add a sprig of verbena, one bottle of soda water, and a nutmeg. Heat it and serve it hot. For a cup, strain it and serve over ice.
J.Thomas, How to Mix Drinks- recipe 192 – 1862

Mulled Claret (Burgundy)

Three spoons sugar
One-half pint of water
Five or six cloves
Three small pieces of cinnamon
The whole rind of the lemon cut very thin.
Let come to a boil; add wine. Boil again and serve very hot.
The Old Waldorf-Astoria Bar Book, 1935

Mulled Port

Makes 6 glasses

2 oranges, peeled
cut 1⁄2 teaspoon ground into slices (reserve allspice and the peel)
1 cinnamon stick
12 whole cloves
1⁄4 cup granulated sugar
1⁄2 teaspoon ground mace 1 (750-ml) bottle ruby or
1⁄2 teaspoon grated
tawny port

In a large nonreactive saucepan, place the orange peel, cloves, mace, nutmeg, allspice, cinnamon stick, sugar, and 2 cups of water. Set over medium-high heat and stir frequently to dissolve the sugar.
Let the water boil, turn the heat down to medium, and simmer for 10 minutes. Strain the mixture and return it to the pan. Add the port and heat but do not boil. Serve in Irish coffee glasses with a slice of peeled orange in each.

Mulled Wine

(750 ml) bottle of dry red wine
¼ cup brandy (or orange liqueur)
1 orange, sliced into rounds (also peeled, if you would like a less-bitter drink)
whole cloves
cinnamon sticks
star anise
2 to 4 tablespoons of sugar, honey, or maple syrup to taste (or your desired sweetener).
Optional garnishes: citrus slices (orange, lemon, and/or lime), extra cinnamon sticks, extra star anise

Add wine, brandy, orange slices, cloves, cinnamon, star anise, and 2 tablespoons sweetener to a large saucepan. Stir briefly to combine.

Simmer – Cook the mulled wine on medium-high heat until it barely reaches a simmer. (Avoid letting it bubble — you don’t want to boil off the alcohol.) Reduce heat to low, cover, and let the wine simmer for at least 15 minutes or up to 3 hours.
Strain – Using a fine-mesh strainer, remove and discard the orange slices, cloves, cinnamon sticks, and star anise. Give the mulled wine a taste, and stir in extra sweetener if needed.
Serve – Serve warm in heatproof mugs topped with your favorite garnishes.
Note: You can also place the oranges, cloves, cinnamon, and star anise in a cheesecloth. Then simply strain and pull out the bundle when ready to serve.
Posted on



Negus is a drink made of wine, often port, mixed with hot water, oranges or lemons, spices, and sugar.

According to Malone (Life of Dryden, Prose Works, i. 484), this drink was invented by Colonel Francis Negus (d. 1732), who was commissioner for executing the office of master of the horse from 1717 to 1727, when he became master of the buckhounds.5

According to Malone, Negus is a modern beverage derived from its inventor, Colonel Negus.

Dr. Willich, in his “Lectures on Diet and Regimen,” says:

Negus is one of the most innocent and wholesome species of drink; especially if Seville oranges be added to red port wine, instead of lemons; and drunk moderately, it possesses considerable virtues in strengthening the stomach; but, on account of the volatile and heating oil in the orange peel,
Negus is more stimulant and drying than pure wine if taken in great quantities.

White Wine Negus

Extract the juice from the peeling of one lemon by rubbing loaf sugar on it, or cut the peeling of a lemon extremely thin and pound it in a mortar. Cut two lemons into thin slices; four glasses of calves-feet jelly in a liquid state; small quantities of cinnamon, mace, cloves, and all-spice.
Put the whole into a jug, pour one quart of boiling water upon it, cover the jug close, let it stand a quarter of an hour, and then add one bottle of boiling white wine.
Grate half a nutmeg into it, stir it well together, sweeten it to your taste, and it is fit for use. Seville oranges are not generally used at Oxford in making Negus; when they are, one orange is allowed in each bottle of wine.
Oxford nightcaps, 1827

Cold White Wine Negus

To make cold white wine Negus, let the mixture stand until it is quite cold, and then pour a bottle of white wine into it.
Sometimes in the summer season, it is placed in a tub of ice; when that is done, it will be necessary to make the Negus somewhat sweeter, as extreme cold detracts from the sweetness of liquors.
Oxford nightcaps, 1827

Port Wine Negus

In making port wine Negus, merely omit the jelly; for when port wine comes in contact with calves-feet jelly, it immediately assumes a disagreeable muddy appearance. Negus is not confined to any particular sort of wine; if the jelly is omitted, it can be made with any of several sorts mixed together.
Oxford night caps, 1827

Negus – 1892

Put the rind of half a lemon or orange in a tureen, add eight ounces of sugar, one pint of port wine, and the fourth part of a small nutmeg grated; infuse this for an hour; strain; add one quart of boiling water, and the drink is ready for use.
The Flowing Bowl –What and When to Drink, 1892

Negus – 4ppl

1 lemon(s)
2 tablespoons sugar
1 bottle ruby port
Pare off the yellow rind of one lemon in thin strips, avoiding any of the white pith, if possible. Put it into a double boiler with the juice of the same, the sugar, and the port. Heat, stirring until sugar is dissolved. Add 1 cup boiling water and strain into a preheated pitcher when hot. Pour into mugs, glasses, or cups with or without a flick of nutmeg.
David Wondrich, 2007


Lemon posset with almond bread
By Jules – lemon posset with almond bread, CC BY 2.0,

Posset is a popular British hot drink made of milk curdled with wine or ale, often spiced and used as a cold remedy. It is considered to be the predecessor of EggNog.

The earliest mention of posset^ I was able to find it in a couple of cookbooks from 1420-1450 AD. The actual word used in one of the recipes was poshotte, referred to as posset, and the term itself most likely originated from posenet – a small pot for cooking.

There are two more posset/possate references from the mid-1400s, in J. Russel’s Boke of nurture, and another 200 years later in the second edition from Sir Kenelm Digby’s The closet (London: 1671)
One of the most common mixtures was posset made with eggs, figs, and ale, which later, around the 16th century, evolved into a dessert made with cream, sugar, and usually lemons.

Posset White Wine, Whey, Or Milk – 1827

Put one pint of milk into a saucepan, and when it boils, pour into it one gill of white wine. Boil until the curd becomes hard, then strain it through a fine sieve. Rub a few knobs of loaf sugar on the rind of a lemon, put them into the whey, and grate a small quantity of nutmeg into it; sweeten it to your taste, and it is fit for use.
Oxford Night Caps – Collection of receipts, 1827

Posset with IPA, Porter, and Strega

1/4 cup mace
15 allspice berries
1 teaspoon whole cloves
1 teaspoon great fresh cinnamon
16 oz heavy cream
4 eggs
6 oz sugar
24 oz India pale ale
8 oz porter
3 oz Strega liqueur
1 oz allspice dram
1 oz Velvet Falernum
Garnish: grated nutmeg


Place the mace, allspice berries, cloves, and cinnamon on top of a square of cheesecloth, and use kitchen twine to tie tightly into a spice sachet.
Turn the crockpot on high. Add the cream and eggs, and whisk until homogenized. Once warm, whisk in the sugar until dissolved, then add the beer, liquors, and spice sachet. Continue to cook on high for 2 hours until the mixture forms what is essentially a cooked layer of egg and curd on top. Turn the temperature down to warm until you’re ready to serve.
To serve, whisk into fine curds, then spoon into coffee mugs. Grate fresh nutmeg on top to garnish.
Olmstednyc restaurant – in-house recipe

Pousse café

B 52 edited

Pousse-cafés are 19th-century, very short, multi-layered cocktails served in Sherry or tall Pousse-café glass. Usually, the ingredients with higher density are poured first to support the next layer to float on top. The drink originated in France and can be translated as a coffee chaser.

It appeared in J. Thomas’s How to Mix Drinks (1862) book under Fancy cocktails, recipe #163.

Parisina Pousse Café – 1862

⅖ Curacao
⅖ Kirschwasser
⅕ Chartreuse
“This is a celebrated Parisian drink.”

Pousse Cafe – 1888

Great care must be taken in mixing the above drink, a favorite drink of the French and has become a favorite in this country. Use a Sherry wine glass.
As several liquors are required to prepare this drink, it should be made to perfectly separate the portions. Therefore, I would suggest that a sherry wine glass would be used for pouring in these different Cordials, instead of a teaspoon, or the original bottles, as it has a better appearance and takes less time;

Mix as follows:

1/6 glass of Parfait d’Amour or Raspberry syrup
1/6 glass of Maraschino
1/6 glass of Vanilla (green)
1/6 glass of Curacoa (red)
1/6 glass of Chartreuse (yellow)
l/6 gh1,ss of Cognac (or Brandy)
The above ingredients will fill the glass.

I would advise any bartender having called for these drinks often to place his original bottles containing the different Cordials used in the drink separately in one place to have them follow in the rotation above mentioned; this will avoid mixing up the bottles and trouble.

Harry Johnson’s New and improved bartender’s manual, 1888

I also have to mention another item of great importance: the Cordials used in the above drink differ in weight; for instance, you will find French Curacao to weigh more than the Holland Curacoa, and so on, it is different in all Cordials. It is wise for a bartender to find out the different weights and then place them in rotation.
To avoid mixing up; therefore, you cannot depend entirely on the illustration in mixing the drink called Pousse Cafe.

Harry Johnson’s New and improved bartender’s manual, 1888

Pousse Cafe Recipe

1/2 ounce Grenadine
1/2 ounce yellow chartreuse
1/2 ounce crème de cassis
1/2 ounce white creme de menthe
1/2 ounce green chartreuse
1/2 ounce brandy
Layered in that order

Currently, Pousse cafes are also known as shooters, and the most important rule while making them is to be aware of each ingredient’s density.
One must pour the layers very gently to avoid mixing. There are numerous ways to layer a drink, but generally, the ingredients can be poured over the back of a spoon or down on the side of the glass.


Punches are very similar to Cups in that they also use spices, sweeteners, and citrus and are suitable for large gatherings and served as individual drinks.

The first discovered punch recipe (“aqua vitae, rosewater, citrus juice, and sugar “) was recorded by the German adventurer Johan Albrecht de Mandelslo when visiting in 1638 one of the English East India Company’s factories in India. That was well before the wide acceptance of the cocktail^ in the 1800s.

Lemon Punch To Keep – 1847

Cut the rind off six lemons, if large, eight if small, squeeze out the juice, put the rind and the juice together, and add one quart of white brandy.
Let it remain closely covered for three or four days.
Let the juice of six or eight additional lemons be squeezed into two quarts of water.
Put a sufficient quantity of double refined sugar into it to sweeten the whole.
Boil it well and when quite cold, pour it into Sherry or Madeira.

Then mix it well with a bottle of lemon and brandy, and sweet if sufficiently, through a flannel bag into a small cask. Strain it. At the expiration of three months, bottle it and keep it in a cool place if the bottles are well corked and off. It will be fit to drink in a month.
Oxford nightcaps, 1847

Philadelphia Fish-House Punch – 1905

One-third of a pint of lemon juice.
Three-quarter pounds of white sugar, dissolved in sufficient water.
One half a pint of cognac brandy.
One-quarter pint peach brandy.
One-quarter pint Jamaica rum.
Two and a half pints of cold water.
Ice and serve.
Charles S. Mahoney, Hoffman House Bartender’s guide, 1905

Rumbustion Punch

1 oz fresh lime juice
1⁄2 ounce SC Demerara syrup
1⁄4 ounce SC Cinnamon Syrup
1 ounce blended aged rum
1 ounce blended lightly aged rum
2 dashes Herbstura

Multiply the ingredient quantities by the number of guests. Combine all the ingredients except ice in a beverage dispenser or other sealable container and whisk together.
Chill for 1 to 2 hours before serving. Add large blocks of ice to the dispenser or serve over a large block or smaller blocks of ice in a punch bowl.
Created by Martin Cate, Smuggler’s Cove, 2016


Gin Rickey1
Scott Veg, CC BY 2.0

Rickey is a highball made from gin or any other liquor, lime juice, and carbonated water. Little or no sugar is added to the Rickey.

Rickey Based Recipe

2 ounces of desired liquor
Fill with club soda
1 lime wedge
Pour the liquor and club soda into a highball glass filled with ice cubes. Squeeze the lime widget and drop it in. Stir and serve.



Sangaree is a mixture of fortified wine or your preferred liquor, sugar, water, and grated nutmeg. The name is derived from the Spanish word “Sangre” (Blood), and initially, it was served as punch before transitioning to a single drink around 1850-the 60s.
First, it appeared in the Volume VI issue of British Gentleman’s Magazine, page 551, 1736.

…Trade, which raiſed the Price of Barley and Hops; ſome took Taverns in the Univerſities, which, no Body could do before this Gin-Aét, with- out Leave of the Vice-Chancellor; others fet up Apothecaries-Shops: only Mr Aſhley of the London Punch-Houſe, and one more, had took out sol. Licenſes (See p. 195 C). Mr Gordon, a Punch-ſeller in the Strand, had deviſed a new Punch made of ſtrong Madeira Wine, and called Sangre;. O- thers pretend, That Contrating for Tºyo Gallons of Brandy, or any Spirituous Li- B ors, is fairly Buying and Selling it, and the Buyer take; only part of the ſaid Two Gallons, and the Seller gives Credit and H.ſ.º. for the reſt ºf it, who has to do with it 27; an univerſal Cuſtom in all Trades; which no Law can prevent. …

Sangaree Base recipe

1 1⁄2 oz desired liquor
1 teaspoon superfine sugar
1 oz tawny port
1 lemon twist
2 teaspoons water
1/8 teaspoon grated nutmeg
Crushed ice
1/8 teaspoon ground cinnamon
2 1⁄2 ounces of club soda

Dissolve the sugar in the water and add liquor to a tall glass.
Fill the glass with crushed ice and add the club soda. Float the port on top. Garnish with a lemon twist and a dusting of nutmeg and cinnamon. Basically, it is Toddy with Port float and spices.

Port wine Sangaree – 1862

1 ½ glass of port wine
1 teaspoonful of sugar
Fill tumbler two-thirds with ice. Shake well and grate nutmeg on top.
J.Thomas, How to Mix Drinks, 1862

Brandy Sangaree 1905

Two lumps ice
One-half wineglass water
One-half tablespoonful of sugar
One glass brandy
Stir with a spoon, grate nutmeg on top, and serve. It may be strained.
Hoffman House Bartender’s guide, 1905


Scaffas are mixed and served at room temperature with no ice or dilution.

Brandy Scaffa

1/4 Sherry glass of Raspberry syrup;
1/4 Sherry glass of Maraschino;
1/4 Sherry glass of Chartreuse (green)
Top it off with Brandy and serve.
This drink must be properly prepared to prevent the different colors from running into each other, and each must appear separate.
Byron, The Modern bartender’s guide, 1884.

Scaffa – 1908

Fill a sherry glass with half maraschino and half cognac, add a few drops of Angostura bitters, and serve ice water on the side.
The World’s drink, 1908


Peach Shrub
Edsel Little, CC BY-SA 2.0

The shrub dates back to the 17th and 18th centuries. It can be two different beverages; an alcoholic and a non-alcoholic (also known as drinking vinegar) drink. Shrubs are usually stored before use to allow the infusion to take place.
The alcoholic version usually has a spirit base, sugar, and citrus fruit juice.

The non-alcoholic shrub is sweetened vinegared syrup, usually mixed with fruits and botanicals ready to be used in cocktails.

Brandy Shrub

4 lbs. of loaf sugar, dissolved well with a bottle of plain soda water;
4 quarts of old Brandy
2 quarts of Sherry wine
10 lemons

Use a bowl to make six quarts.
Peel the rinds of 4 lemons; add the juice of the other 6 lemons and mix with brandy into the bowl. Cover it closed for 5 days, add the sherry wine and sugar, strain through a bag, and bottle it. This also applies to all other Shrubs.
Harry Johnson’s New and Improved bartender’s manual, 1888

Raspberry Shrub

1 quart of vinegar
3 quarts of ripe raspberries
After standing for a day, strain it. Add a pound of sugar to each pint, and skim it clear while boiling for about half an hour. Add a wine glass of brandy to each pint of the shrub when cool.
2 spoonfuls of this mixed with a tumbler of water is an excellent drink in warm weather and during
a fever.

A little shrub mixed with ice water makes a delicious drink. The shrub may be made of Cherry or Raspberry juice by this method.

Harry Johnson’s New and Improved bartender’s manual, 1888

Rum Shrub – English style

For a quart of the juice of sour oranges, add sugar to the taste and a quart of Jamaica rum. This drink must be put away in a cool place for some weeks before use, as it improves with age. A great variety of Shrubs may be properly prepared by substituting one liquor or one kind of fruit for another and following the directions in
the preceding recipes.
World’s of drinks, 1908

Sunomono Cocktail

1 oz shochu
1 oz vodka
1/4 oz simple syrup
1/4 oz honey syrup
1/4 oz fresh lemon juice
1/4 oz rice-wine vinegar
Combine ingredients with ice in a mixing glass. Stir and strain into a chilled glass.
Garnish with a floating cucumber slice, and, if so inclined, kappa nori (cucumber roll – no rice) on the side.
Created by Katie McDonald, Victoria

More on How to Make Shrubs – page 40.


Classic Singapore Sling 1
By Martin W Baker BY-SA 4.0

Sling is one of the oldest categories of mixed drinks. It was essentially a blend of spirit, sugar, citrus, and a splash of water. It can be served cold or hot. Add some bitters to 1800s recipes, and it will become a cocktail (bittered sling).

The Sling appeared as early as the mid-1700s in Maryland Journal, 21st May 1788,

Google Books

Sling Base recipe

2 ounces liquor
1 teaspoon superfine sugar
1 oz lemon juice
2 teaspoons water
1 lemon twist
In a shaker half-filled with ice cubes, combine the sugar, water, lemon juice, and liquor. Shake well and pour into a highball glass. Garnish with a lemon twist.

Cold Whiskey Sling

1 teaspoonful of sugar
1/2 wine glass (1 oz) of water, dissolve well.
1 or two small lumps of ice
1 wine glass (2oz) of Whiskey
Mix well, grate a little nutmeg on top, and serve. Use a small bar glass.
Harry Johnson’s New and Improved Bartender’s manual, 1888

Singapore Sling – early 1900s

Gin Sling

Juice of 1 Lemon
1 glass (2 oz) of gin
1teaspoonful of Grenadine, 1
1 wineglass (2 oz) of plain water
Shake well and strain into a medium-sized tumbler.
ABC of Mixing, 1930


Smash cocktail
Matthias Friedlein (

The most common ingredients of Smash are fresh fruit, spirit, sugar, and served over crushed ice. The smash’s seasonal fruit could be muddled or used only as a garnish. It is similar to Julep.

Smash Base recipe

2oz liquor
4 fresh mint sprigs
1 teaspoon superfine sugar
1 orange slice (fruits of season)
1 Maraschino cherry
1 oz club soda
Muddle the mint sprigs lightly with the sugar and club soda in an old-fashioned glass. Add the liquor. Stir well and garnish with the fruits and the cherry. Fill the glass with ice cubes (cracked ice).

Smash – 1888

Old Style Whiskey Smash
(Use an extra-large Whiskey glass.)

1 wine glass (2 oz) of Whiskey
1/4 tablespoonful of sugar
1/2 wine glass (1 oz) of water
3 or 4 sprigs of mint, dissolve well

Fill the glass with small pieces of ice. Put the fruit in season and mix well. Place the strainer in the glass and serve.
H.Johnson’s New and Improved bartender’s manual, 1888

Brandy Smash (use any desired spirits)

Dissolve 1 teaspoonful of sugar and water in a shaker and add a few sprigs of fresh mint.
Extract the flavor of mint. Draw out sprigs of mint, add one glass (2 oz) of brandy, and shake well. Pour into a wine glass half-full with fine ice. Decorate with fruits in season.
ABC of Mixing, 1930

Ginger Smash

2 chunks of fresh pineapple
2 slices fresh ginger
1 teaspoon sugar
1 1/2 ounces light rum
3/4 ounce Luxardo maraschino liqueur
3/4 ounce Berentzen apple liqueur
1/2 ounce lime juice, freshly squeezed
Garnish: pineapple leaf

Muddle the pineapple, ginger, and sugar in a shaker until they form a paste.
Add the rum, maraschino liqueur, apple liqueur, and lime juice, then fill the shaker halfway with ice.
Shake briefly and pour unstrained into a rock’s glass.
Created by Jason Kosmas and Dushan Zaric of Employees Only



Sour is a combination of spirit, citrus, and sweetener. If liqueur is a base spirit, omit the sweetener. Optional ingredients – (bitters and egg white).

Sour – Base recipe

2 oz liquor
1 oz lemon juice
1⁄2 teaspoon superfine sugar
1 Maraschino cherry
1 orange slice

Shake well with ice cubes, liquor, lemon juice, and sugar. Strain into a sour glass and garnish with the orange slice and the cherry.

Brandy Sour – 1862

It is made the same way as Brandy Fix, omitting the fruits, except the lemon, which has to be squeezed into the drink.

1 wine glass (2 oz) of brandy
½ wine glass (1 oz) of water
¼ of a lemon
1 tablespoon of sugar
Fill a ⅔ of a tumbler with shaved ice. Stir with a spoon and dress the top with fruit in season (For Brandy Fix).
J.Thomas, How to Mix Drinks, 1862

Fancy Brandy Sour – 1888

1 wine glass (2 oz) of Brandy
1/2 tablespoonful of sugar
2 or 3 dashes of Lemon juice
1 squirt of Syphon Selters water, dissolve the sugar and lemon well with a spoon.
Fill up the glass with ice. Stir up well, place the fruits into the fancy sour glass; strain the ingredients, and serve.
H.Johnson’s New and Improved bartender’s manual, 1888

Pisco Sour

2 oz pisco brandy
1 oz simple syrup
3/4 oz key lime juice
1 large egg white
2 to 3 dashes of aromatic bitters (Amargo Chuncho Bitters or Angostura bitters)

Add pisco, simple syrup, lime juice, and egg white to a cocktail shaker and dry shake (no ice).
Add ice to fill, and shake vigorously. Strain into an old-fashioned glass and sprinkle the bitters on top of the foam.


Aperol spritz

An aperitif cocktail—a drink consumed before a meal to stimulate the appetite. The classic Wine Spritz is a type of Highball.

Wine Spritz

4 ounces cold, white, or rosé wine
2 ounces cold seltzer
Garnish: 1 lemon wheel
Pour the wine into a wine glass. Fill the glass with ice cubes, and pour in the seltzer. Stir once and garnish with the lemon wheel.

Aperol Spritzer

2 ounces Aperol
3 ounces cold prosecco or dry Champagne-style sparkling wine
2 ounces cold seltzer
Garnish: 1 orange wedge or grapefruit wedge
Pour the Aperol into a wine glass. Fill the glass with ice cubes, pour in the sparkling wine and seltzer, and quickly dip the bar spoon into the glass to gently mix the wine with the cocktail.


Sailors Swizzle
Cocktailmarler, CC BY-SA 3.0, Sailors Swizzle

A mixed drink made with bitters and spirit. It is frothed up by rapidly turning around in the glass, between the palms of the hand, a stick called a swizzle stick (a long stem with four or five short prongs sticking out from it at the bottom).

A definition from 1908 describes the Swizzle as a famous West Indian beverage.

A long glass of cracked ice, some sugar, lime, or lemon juice, several dashes of Angostura bitters, and a jigger of the desired liquor brand stirred thoroughly with a swizzle stick and filled up with club soda.
An egg is sometimes added after being thoroughly beaten. To make Swizzle, one may use as base any kind of liquor.
The world’s drinks, 1908

West Indian Swizzle – 1945

2 oz West Indian Rum
⅓ oz Angostura bitters
2 oz Seltzer
1 lump of sugar
1 lump of ice
300 hundred ways to mix drinks, 1945

Bermuda Rum Swizzle

2 oz dark rum
4 oz fresh orange juice
4 oz pineapple juice
1/4 oz grenadine
2 dashes of Angostura bitters
Garnish: pineapple, orange, and cherry
Fill Collins glass two-thirds of the way with crushed ice. Add rum, juices, grenadine, and bitters.
Stir vigorously with a swizzle stick (or bar spoon) until frothing. Garnish each drink with a cherry, orange slice, and pineapple wedge.


Patrick Truby – CC BY-SA 2.0

Toddy is made with spirit, sweetener, and hot water.

Brandy Toddy

1 wine glass (2oz) of brandy
½ wine glass of water
1 teaspoonful of sugar
1 small lump of ice
Stir with a spoon; for Hot Toddy, omit the ice, and use boiling water.
J.Thomas, How to Mix Drinks, 1862

Whisky Toddy

2 dashes syrup
1 jigger whisky
Stir strain into an old-fashioned champagne bowl or Burgundy glass, with a little nutmeg on top.
Applegreen, Barkeeper’s guide, 1904

Old-fashioned Whisky Toddy

1 lump of sugar dampened with water and crushed well with a muddler.
1 jigger (2oz) whisky
1 lump of ice
Stir well and serve in a fancy glass.
Note: For Brandy Toddy, replace the whisky with brandy or any other liquor.
Applegreen, Barkeeper’s guide, 1904

Hot Toddy

1½ ounce brown liquor such as brandy, whiskey, or rum
1 tablespoon honey
½ ounce lemon juice
1 cup hot water
Lemon wedge, cinnamon stick, and star anise, for garnish (optional)

Combine the first four ingredients in the bottom of a warmed mug. Garnish with the lemon, cinnamon stick, or star anise if desired.



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